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Carpinus betulus L.

Common name: European hornbeam
Family: Corylaceae
Functional Life form: medium deciduous tree
Ecological Role and distribution: Typical associated with oak species and Fagus sylvatica. Exceptionally it forms almost monospecific stands. The Italian areal comprises the outer belt of Alps and the Apennine mountains. In central - south of Italy it can be found along the alluvial valleys and inside the gorges
Lifespan, yrs (typical/max): 150/200
Height, m: typically 10-20 m, occasionally reaching 30 m
Canopy Tree: no
Pollination Agent: wind  
Flowering Dates: late spring
Flowers/Cones Damaged by Frost: no
Seed fall Begins: early fall - winter
Dispersal Agent: gravity, birds
Season of Germination: spring
Substrate: deep soil, well drained, rich in nitrogen
Light: commonly lives in shade
Moisture: moist requiring
Temperature: heat-summer demanding, it suffers late frost