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Fagus sylvatica L.

Common name: beech
Family: Fagaceae
Functional Life form: large deciduous tree
Ecological Role and distribution: typical of mountain areas of the Apennine chain and the outer belt of the Alps. Normally it forms almost monospecific stands but it can be associated with Quercus cerris, Carpinus betulus, Acer pseudoplatanus and Abies alba. In the understory Taxus baccata and Ilex aquifolium can be found
Lifespan, yrs (typical/max): 300/400
Height, m: 20 - 40
Canopy Tree: yes
Pollination Agent: wind
Flowering Dates: late spring
Flowers/Cones Damaged by Frost: yes
Seed fall Begins: early fall - winter
Dispersal Agent: gravity, birds, other animals
Season of Germination: spring
Substrate: deep soil, well drained, rich in humus
Light: shade tolerant
Moisture: moist required with an optimum around 1500 mm
Temperature: growths in area with an yearly average temperature between 6 and 12 °C