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Quercus frainetto Ten.

Common name: Italian oak
Family: Fagaceae
Functional Life form: large deciduous tree
Ecological Role and distribution: typical of plain and hilly areas of the Apennine chain in central south of Italy. It forms mixed woods with Quercus pubescens and Quercus cerris
Lifespan, yrs (typical/max): 150/400
Height, m: 30
Canopy Tree: yes
Pollination Agent: wind
Flowering Dates: late spring
Flowers/Cones Damaged by Frost: no
Seed fall Begins: early fall - winter
Dispersal Agent: gravity, zoocory (birds)
Season of Germination: spring
Substrate: it prefers loamy and clay soils
Light: seedlings shade tolerant with rapid growth and then heliophyte
Moisture: typically mesophyte
Temperature: sensitive to frost conditions and cold winds