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Quercus ilex L.

Common name: holm oak
Family: Fagaceae
Functional Life form: large evergreen tree
Ecological Role and distribution: climax tree of the Mediterranean region, often in association with other shrub species typical of the “macchia” vegetation
Lifespan, yrs (typical/max): 300-400
Height, m: 25
Canopy Tree: yes
Pollination Agent: wind 
Flowering Dates:  late spring
Flowers/Cones Damaged by Frost: yes
Seed fall Begins:  late fall winter
Dispersal Agent: gravity and zoocory (birds)
Season of Germination: spring
Substrate: calcareous soil, well drained: typically in carbonated rocks
Light: more sciaphilous if compared with other Mediterranean species
Moisture: moderately xerophilous
Temperature: termophilous but tolerant of frost conditions